The 19S regulatory particle is responsible for stimulating the 20S to degrade proteins. A primary function of the 19S regulatory ATPases is to open the gate in the 20S that blocks the entry of substrates into the degradation chamber.  The mechanism by which the proteasomal ATPase open this gate has been recently elucidated.  20S gate opening, and thus substrate degradation, requires the C-termini of the proteasomal ATPases, which contains a specific motif (., HbYX motif). The ATPases C-termini bind into pockets in the top of the 20S, and tether the ATPase complex to the 20S proteolytic complex, thus joining the substrate unfolding equipment with the 20S degradation machinery. Binding of these C-termini into these 20S pockets by themselves stimulates opening of the gate in the 20S in much the same way that a "key-in-a-lock" opens a door.  The precise mechanism by which this "key-in-a-lock" mechanism functions has been structurally elucidated. 
AB - We previously reported preferential expression of genes for ecdysteroid signaling in the mushroom bodies of honeybee workers, suggesting a role of ecdysteroid signaling in regulating honeybee behaviors. The organs that produce ecdysteroids in worker honeybees, however, remain unknown. We show here that the expression of neverland and Non- molting glossy/ shroud, which are involved in early steps of ecdysteroid synthesis, was enhanced in the ovary, while the expression of CYP306A1 and CYP302A1, which are involved in later steps of ecdysone synthesis, was enhanced in the brain, and the expression of CYP314A1, which is involved in converting ecdysone into active 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), was enhanced in the brain, fat body, and ovary. In in vitro organ culture, a significant amount of ecdysteroids was detected in the culture medium of the brain, fat body, and hypopharyngeal glands. The ecdysteroids detected in the culture medium of the fat body were identified as ecdysone and 20E. These findings suggest that, in worker honeybees, cholesterol is converted into intermediate ecdysteroids in the ovary, whereas ecdysone is synthesized and secreted mainly by the brain and converted into 20E in the brain and fat body.