Most causes of viral meningitis are not preventable, although a good general precaution against viral meningitis is attention to handwashing since enteroviruses in particular usually enter the body via the hand to mouth route. Immunisation against mumps and measles (MMR) is offered to children at 12-13 months and 3 years of age as part of the routine childhood immunisation schedule. Immunisations are also available for some Flaviviruses such as tick-borne encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis, and are recommended for travellers to areas where the risk of these infections is high.
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Inflammation of the meninges may lead to abnormalities of the cranial nerves , a group of nerves arising from the brain stem that supply the head and neck area and which control, among other functions, eye movement, facial muscles, and hearing.   Visual symptoms and hearing loss may persist after an episode of meningitis.  Inflammation of the brain ( encephalitis ) or its blood vessels ( cerebral vasculitis ), as well as the formation of blood clots in the veins ( cerebral venous thrombosis ), may all lead to weakness, loss of sensation, or abnormal movement or function of the part of the body supplied by the affected area of the brain.