The number of players who have admitted using steroids in a confidential survey conducted by the NCAA since the 1980s has dropped from percent in 1989 to percent in 2003.  During the 2003 season, there were over 7,000 drug tests, with just 77 turning up as positive test results.  Scukanec claims that methods were used to get around the drug testing, whether it be avoiding the tests by using the drugs during the off-season, or flushing the drugs out of your system. This was used with a liquid he referred to as the "pink."  He stated:
I say it’s encouraging though, because it might show that however football was being played previously, before the dramatic size increases, increases in passing (and thus opportunities for collisions on passing plays), there were not suicide issues, and that those who played football generally lived longer than their peers. Ultimately, this study shows that former players are healthier than the general public and did not engage in risk activities that increased death rates, particularly cigarette smoking, but the fact that the heavier players were dying at a higher rate could be a concern going forward, since a BMI of 30 or more is far more typical these days.