Kidney failure is very common in patients suffering from congestive heart failure . It was shown that kidney failure complicates one-third of all admissions for heart failure, which is the leading cause of hospitalization in the United States among adults over 65 years old.  These complications led to longer hospital stay, higher mortality, and greater chance for readmission. Another study found that 39% of patients in NYHA class 4 and 31% of patients in NYHA class 3 had severely impaired kidney function.  Similarly, kidney failure can have deleterious effects on cardiovascular function. It was estimated that about 44% of deaths in patients with end-stage kidney failure (ESKF) are due to cardiovascular disease.