Barbiturates are capable of producing all levels of CNS mood alteration, from excitation to mild sedation, hypnosis , and deep coma. Overdosage can produce death. In high enough therapeutic doses, barbiturates induce anesthesia . Barbiturates depress the sensory cortex, decrease motor activity, alter cerebellar function, and produce drowsiness, sedation, and hypnosis. Barbiturate-induced sleep differs from physiologic sleep. Sleep laboratory studies have demonstrated that barbiturates reduce the amount of time spent in the rapid eye movement (REM) phase, or dreaming stage of sleep. Also, Stages III and IV sleep are decreased. Following abrupt cessation of regularly used barbiturates, patients may experience markedly increased dreaming, nightmares, and/or insomnia . Therefore, withdrawal of a single therapeutic dose over 5 or 6 days has been recommended to lessen the REM rebound and disturbed sleep that contribute to drug withdrawal syndrome (for example, decreasing the dose from 3 to 2 doses a day for 1 week).
The mass average can be important in evaluating the risks of radiotherapy treatments, since they are designed to target very specific volumes in the body, typically a tumour. For example, if 10% of a patient's bone marrow mass is irradiated with 10 Gy of radiation locally, then the absorbed dose in bone marrow overall would be 1 Gy. Bone marrow makes up 4% of the body mass, so the whole-body absorbed dose would be Gy. The first figure (10 Gy) is indicative of the local effects on the tumour, while the second and third figure (1 Gy and Gy) are better indicators of the overall health effects on the whole organism. Additional dosimetry calculations would have to be performed on these figures to arrive at a meaningful effective dose, which is needed to estimate the risk of cancer or other stochastic effects.
For more information on medical abortion, consult these web sites:
• http:// (Arabic, English, French, Spanish,Turkish, Vietnamese)
• http:// (English; dosage recommendations in Russian)
• http:// (Armenian, English, French,Hindi, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish)
• http:///Topics/Medical_ (English, Spanish)
• http:// (Dutch, English, French, Spanish, Polish, Portuguese); also http:///set-274- (“How can I do an abortion with pills?” in Arabic, English, French, Polish, Portuguese, Spanish, Swahili)
• http:// (Arabic, Dutch, English, French, Polish, Portuguese, Spanish)
• http:// (Consorcio Latinoamericano Contra el Aborto Inseguro; Spanish)
• http://- (Asia Safe Abortion Partnership; English)
• http:///?page=main&lang=en&mode;=&args;= (Eastern European Alliance for Reproductive Choice [EEARL]; English, Russian)
• http:///publications/ , search “medical abortion”
• http:// (Arabic, English, French, Spanish)