It has been recommended in the current Clinical Practice Guidelines (2011) by the Endocrine Society - a professional, international medical organization in the field of endocrinology and metabolism - that all patients with pituitary incidentalomas undergo a complete medical history and physical examination , laboratory evaluations to screen for hormone hypersecretion and for hypopituitarism . If the lesion is in close proximity to the optic nerves or optic chiasm , a visual field examination should be performed. For those with incidentalomas which do not require surgical removal, follow up clinical assessments and neuroimaging should be performed as well follow-up visual field examinations for incidentalomas that abut or compress the optic nerve and chiasm and follow-up endocrine testing for macroincidentalomas. 
Gynecomastia is a common adverse effect of bicalutamide (Casodex) therapy that may prompt some men to discontinue prostate cancer treatment. Tamoxifen has been recommended as a preventive agent for gynecomastia in these patients. A double-blind study of 282 men randomized to receive 20 mg of tamoxifen once per day with bicalutamide or bicalutamide alone found that after six months, gynecomastia and breast pain were significantly reduced in men who received tamoxifen ( versus percent in the control group). 41 An Italian randomized controlled trial of 80 participants also found that 20 mg of tamoxifen once per week is as effective as 20 mg once per day. 42
Enteroendocrine cells have traditionally been recognized by their affinity for certain metal stains, hence the older terms chromaffin cells (having an affinity for chromium) and argentaffin cells or argyrophil cells (having an affinity for silver). With sufficient resolution, these cells can sometimes be recognized in routine light microscopic preparations by their relatively pale cytoplasm with a broad base and a basal concentration of secretory vesicles (in contrast to the apical concentration of secretory vesicles for exocrine serous cells or mucous cells ). Immunocytochemical methods are preferred for demonstrating and properly identifying the various types of enteroendocrine cells.